Philip Freneau




  • 1786. ThePoems of Philip Freneau, Written Chiefly During the Late War. (This volume ontains 111 poems, 98 of which have obvious American or patriotic themes. It earned Freneau the title "poet of the Revolution." and includes one of his greatest nature poems, "The Wild Honey Suckle."


  • 1788. The Miscellaneous Works of Mr. Philip Freneau, Containing His Essays and Additional Poems. (This collection further displays Freneau's skill for satire, and moral convictions. It includes "The Indian Burying Ground" and "The Indian Student," two sympathetic portraits of Native Americans.)


  • 1795. Poems Written Between the Years 1768 and 1794. (Freneau intended this collection of 287 poems, manufactured on his own printing press, to be his "authorized edition" It includes never-before-published poems as well as revisions of earlier poems, omitting Latin mottoes to speak more directly to the common man. Though Freneau anticipated great sales from the publication, it was poorly received.)


  • 1799. Letters on Various Interesting and Important Subjects. This was Freneau's most popular non-fiction work, published under the name "Robert Slender," a supposedly simple man whose understanding of politics comes only from reading the newspaper. The letters discuss state, national, and European politics, denounce war, and appeal for a return to true republican values


  • 1815. A Collection of Poems, on American Affairs. A two-volume collection of previously unpublished works released in response to the War of 1812. The poems reflect the author's strong patriotic fervor and, though repetitive, show the mature Freneau to be a calm, self-assured poet.



  • The Poems of Philip Freneau, Poet of the American Revolution, 3 vols. Ed. Fred L. Pattee. Princeton, 1902-07.


  • The Prose Works of Philip Freneau. Ed. Philip Marsh. New Brunswick: Scarecrow Press, 1955.


  • The Newspaper Verse of Philip Freneau. An Edition and Bibliographic Survey. Ed. Judith R. Hiltner. 1986.



  • Adkins, Nelson F. Philip Freneau and the Cosmic Enigma: The Religious and Plilosophical Speculations o an American Poet Russell & Russell, 1971 [1949].


  • Andrews, William D. "Philip Freneau and Francis Hopkinson". American Literature 1764-1789: The Revolutionary Years. Ed. Everett Emerson, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977.


  • Austin, Mary S. Philip Freneau, The Poet of the Revolution: A History of His Life and Times. Gale Research, 1968 (1901).


  • Axelrad, Jacob. Philip Freneau, Champion of Democracy.(Austin: University of Texas Press, 1967


  • Bigelow, George. Rhetoric and American Poetry of the Early National Period. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1960.


  • Bowden, Mary W. Philip Freneau. Twayne, 1976.


  • Clark, Harry H. Literary Influences of Philip Freneau, (1925)


  • Forman, Samuel E. The Political Activities of Philip Freneau (Baltimore, 1902, Johns Hopkins Studies in History. and Political. Science, Series XX, No. 9-10.


  • Gigliotti, Gilbert L. "Off a 'Strange, Uncoasted Strand': Navigating the Ship of State through Feneau's Hurricane". Classical and Modern Literature 15 (1995): 357-366.


  • Harrington, Joseph."Re-Birthing 'America?: Philip Freneau, William Cullen Bryant and the Invention of Modern Poetics". Making America/Making American Literature. Ed. Robert A. Lee & W. M. Verhoeven. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996: 249-74.


  • Hedges, William L. "The Myth of the Republic and the Theory of American Literature". Prospects 4 (1979): 101-120.


  • Kummings, Donald D. "'Nature's Children': The Image of the Indian in Philip Freneau". Indian Journal of American Studies 11 (January 1981): 25-38.


  • Kyle, Carol A. "That Poet Freneau: A Study of the Imagistic Success of The Pictures of Columbus". Early American Literature 9 (1974): 62-70.


  • Leary, Lewis. That Rascal Freneau: A Study in Literary Failure. New York: Octagon, 1971 (1941).


  • _____ "Philip Freneau". Major Writers of Early American Literature. Ed. Everett Emerson. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1972: 245-71.


  • Marble, Annie R. Heralds of American Literature (Chicago, 1907).


  • Marsh, Philip M. The Works of Philip Freneau: A Critical Study, (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1968).


  • Paltsits, Victor H., A Bibliography of the Separate and Collected Works of Philip Freneau, together with an Account of his Newspapers (New York, 1903). (R. West, 1977)


  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. "The Two National Gazettes: Newspapers and the Embodiment of American Political Parties." Early American Literature 2000 35(1): 51-86.


  • Round, Phillip. "'The Posture That We Give the Dead': Freneau's 'Indian Burying Ground' in Ethnohistorical Context". Arizona Quarterly 50 (Autumn 1994): 1-30.


  • Tyler, Moses Coit. The Entrance of Satire into the Revolutionary Controversy: Philip Freneau, (1897)


  • Wertheimer, Eric. "Commencement Ceremonies: History and Identity in 'The Rising Glory of America', 1771 and 1786". Early American Literature 29 (1994): 35.58.


  • Vitzthum, Richard C. Land and Sea: The Lyric Poetry of Philip Freneau, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1978).